Core Values: An Assessment
An ethical leader is a person who acts with integrity; that is knowing your core values and having the courage to act on them on behalf of the common good.
Generally, we have two forms of values, personal and core. Personal values are lessons learned from life’s trials and tribulation. Core values are embedded during our initial upbringing and create the way a person orients to the world, or, if you prefer, the filter from which you not only make meaning but from which you decide how you will act and react to life’s daily challenges. Core values emanate from the center of who we are and what is most important to us as a human being. And, core values are often not spoken or acted upon creating a nagging within us about something we should not have allowed to happen or an injustice that we participated.
When our core values are clear to us, we have a greater sense of self and how we orient to the world. When we have not clearly identified these core values, we often have powerful and surprising responses to situations that directly or even indirectly conflict with these values.
Values change over time in response to changing life experiences. Recognizing these changes and understanding how they affect one's actions and behaviors is the goal of the values clarification process. Values clarification will not tell you what your values should be, it simply provides the means to discover what your values are.
For the purpose of values clarification, Raths, Harmin and Simon identified seven criteria that must be met if a value is to be considered a full value. These criteria can be divided into three categories: choosing, prizing and acting. To be a full value, the value must be chosen freely from a list of alternatives, only after thoughtful consideration has been given to the consequences of each alternative. The value must be cherished and made known to other people. The value must also be translated into behaviors that are consistent with the chosen value and integrated into the life style.
Criteria for a Full or Core Value
Values clarification is based on the approach formulated by Louis Raths, who in turn built upon the thinking of John Dewey. Unlike other theoretical approaches to values, Raths is not concerned with the content of people's values, but the process of valuing. His focus is on how people come to hold certain beliefs and establish certain behavior patterns. Valuing, according to Raths, is composed of seven sub-processes10:
We often get confused between values and value indicators. Values often grow from our purposes and goals, aspirations, beliefs and convictions, interests, attitudes, feelings, activities, and/or worries, problems, and obstacles. Each of these are value indicators, but are not always values. More often, they are indicators of an underlying value. Unless all seven of the above traits are satisfied, it is not a value. Nonetheless, exploring these value indicators can help unravel the often confusing determination of real values. During the process, we are able to discover the various ways we have made meaning and in many cases, how we have attached some form of importance to them, thereby creating a value indicator.
Thus, the values-clarification approach does not aim to instill any particular set of values. Rather the goal of the values-clarification approach is to help individuals utilize the above seven processes of valuing in their own lives; to apply these valuing processes to already formed beliefs and behavior patterns and to those still emerging.
This exercise will help you clarify your core values. It is a challenging exercise, and it will be more meaningful if you take your time to allow the information to emerge from within you. It is suggested that you initially work on your own and in silence.
During the process you will highlight the values most important to you. To do that, you’ll form a general list of personal values. Within this list you will prioritize the values so as identify the most important ones, as well as reveal how often you practice what you value. The prioritizing process helps you identify your core values. Pay attention to your internal experience including your inner dialogue, physical processes in your body, and emotional reactions as you make choices. How you respond to this assessment will reveal interesting truths about yourself. Journal or make notes on this form as you go through the process.
1. Review the sample assessment on the next page, then review the values on the core values assessment pages. At the bottom of each page of the core value assessment, there are blank lines. Use these lines to add any values that are important to you, but are not listed.
2. Take some time to think about how important are these values. Make a mark on any that is important to you and draw a line through those that are not very important to you. Or using percentages (0-100%), rate the importance of each value.
3. If you have not done so because you have simply marked and crossed out values up to this point, insert a percentage of how important the remaining values are to you.(0-100%)
4. Listimate (guess-estimate) the percentage of your time that you actually practice each value. Consider times that you fudged your enforcement of this value. Notice any difference between the percentage of importance the percentage of the time that you actually practice the value.
Sample Core Value Assessment
Review the sample assessment below, then review the values on the core values assessment pages. At the bottom of each page of the core value assessment, there are blank lines. Use these lines to add any values that are important to you, but are not listed.
Core Value Assessment
Looking at the last two columns of the above table, consider the differences between your perceived level of importance of the value and your actual level of practice in day to day life. Describe what you think causes you to value at one level and to practice at another level.
5. Looking at the percentage of importance and the percentage of actual practice, narrow the list to the eight most important values by crossing off less important ones.
6. Now narrow the list to five, using the same process. Consider if some values are actually absorbed by other values.
7. Now narrow the list to two or three values that are drop-dead, cannot live without values.
8. In the space under Reactions, make a note of your experience from this process. Thoughts, inner conversations, physical or emotional reactions, insights, and/or surprises.
In the space provided below, list the two or three absolutely core values and describe the depth of meaning or importance you associate with each value. To verify that these are core values, check to see if these values meet the seven conditions of a core value.
[ ]Yes [ ]No Do I Consciously select one's beliefs and behaviors by choosing (1) freely, (2) from alternatives and (3) after thoughtful consideration of consequences of each alternative.
[ ]Yes [ ]No Do I Honor one's beliefs and behaviors by (4) internally prizing and cherishing (being happy with the choice) and (5) willing to publicly affirming, when appropriate.
[ ] Yes [ ] No Do I Live my beliefs by (6) acting, that is, doing something with chosen value, and (7) acting on the value repeatedly in some pattern and consistency.
If you answered no to any of the three questions, revisit the list to see if there is a value that you live and did not include in the list.
Once you have your two or three core values, describe or list why each value is so important...use stories or examples if needed. Incorporate how well you practice or do not practice this value.
Making Sense of Your Core Values
You have just discovered, or rediscovered, your core values. Core values often hide deep within us and remind us that something is not “right”. Ethical leadership is knowing your core values and having the courage to integrate them with your actions, being mindful of the common good.
Your core values can help you make difficult decisions or lifestyle choices, select employment, raise a child - the possibilities are endless. They can even help you find common ground with someone you disagree with. The important thing is to integrate them as fully as possible into your life.
Going Beyond The Individual–For dyads and Couples
With your partner, try the following. Facing each other (sitting or standing) make direct eye contact and say your core values. Listen closely to the differences and the similarities. Describe what you notice.
Discuss together how you chose your values, what they mean to you, and how you express them. Describe what you notice from this experience.
Reflect a moment, then describe how your values have changed over the course of your life.
Looking at each core value, list specific steps of what you can do to ensure that you practice what you value and therefore do not delude11 your integrity.
Recognizing that we may have blind spots or things that go bump in the night, what are some situations or times that will test our values and/or ability to practice them fully?
Reflect upon this process and your core values and describe what you plan to do to ensure that you honor, select and live values with integrity. Living values with integrity means being deep rooted and capable of bending under gale force winds without breaking12.
PERSONAL CHANGE ASSESSMENT
The Four Laws of Change
Cross culturally, to enhance change effectiveness the four laws of change were used to assess the readiness for change.
Change comes from within. This means that change will always come from within the individual, from within the group, and/or from within the organization. Change is a relationship with your self. Ideally, the change will be like a pebble thrown into a lake where the change ripples from within all of these configurations
Permanent change requires a vision. This means that unless we hold a clear and/or compelling picture of what is the change that needs to occur, the initial insight or energy or reason for changing fades into the background until triggered by the next difficult reminder and/or painful event.
A great healing/learning must occur. Healing and learning are closely aligned in indigenous cultures. Often, relationships with self or others are healed upon learning new information or by developing different perceptions or by taking the time to help our self or others understand a situation differently. In short, change is often accompanied by a personal insight or group awareness created by waiting in the silence. Hence, for an individual, it could be an epiphany that suddenly sheds light on a problem; or for a family, it could be an insight that they are actually creating most of their problems by how they behave towards each other.
A healing force/forest must be present. So as to make any change permanent, the person needs to share it with others, who in turn will learn to support them in the change. As such, change requires a partnership between those initiating the change and those participating in the change. This means that any change to be permanent must have the support of the larger community. This support is a partnership for life. For an individual, it could mean that the insight or vision is shared with family and friends and time is spent allowing them to understand and learn to see the value of the change. Regardless, the level of success will be directly proportional with the ability to communicate the change and to build support for it.
Describe the change that you seek for yourself.
Assessing Your Readiness for Change
Below are 25 questions. You should answer the questions from your own point of view. You try to simply respond without too much thinking and resist the temptation to give an expected or the-way-it-ought-to-be answer. It is meant to give you a snapshot of how things are now, not how they'll be when everything falls into place.
Answer each question with the following numbers:
4 = The statement is definitely true or accurate.
1.___ I think that the change in question is a necessary one.
Evaluating the Results
The highest score is 100. The higher the score, the more you and your family and friends are ready for the change in question. Specific questions that have low scores are areas that could use some additional thought and/or work.
List your reactions to the questionnaire at this moment. Pay attention to whether your reaction feels familiar. If so, how is it familiar.
Deepening the Process
To get an idea of the general areas that might need more work, tally the scores for each of the Laws of Change. The lower the cumulative score for each of the four laws, the more work that needs to be done in that particular area. For example, if it is clear that a compelling picture or vision has not been developed and integrated, then the change initiative will likely fail. Knowing this area is deficient, you can take corrective action.
Change Comes from Within: ___1___2___3___6___20___22 Total_____of 24
Permanent Change Requires a Vision: ___13___14___16___18___21___24 Total_____of 24
A Great Healing/Learning Must Occur: ___7___9___10___12___15___23 Total_____of 24
A Healing Forest/Force Must be Present: ___4___5___8___11___17___19___25 Total_____of 28
Evaluating the Process
To get a deeper sense of your internal process related to change, the following questions may provide some insights to yourself and to the change process.
Generally, describe what you are feeling/noticing/thinking at this moment about the desired change?
Which questions caused a tinge of pain or discomfort? Describe the discomfort that occurred?
Generally, describe which of the laws of change requires more time and effort for your change to be successful?
Describe what you are Now willing to do to make the desired change.